新概念雙語:美國最新研究:走神能提高學習效率
來源: 環球網校 2019-11-15 10:26:15 頻道: 新概念

School is starting, and students across the country are about to spend a lot of time in the classroom and in the library. And as they crack their textbooks open, they're going to hear a lot of familiar advice about how to study right. “Sit still, in a quiet place. Avoid distractions. Keep your focus on the book. Put away your devices. Study in the same place every day. Practice discipline and make studying into a routine。” But that's not the only way to learn, and brain science is increasingly suggesting alternatives。

又到了開學季,全國各地的學生們很多時間都花費在教室和圖書館里。當他們打開教科書時,就又將聽到一套關于如何學習的不能再熟悉的理論。“要坐得住,環境要清幽,不能分心,專注于你的書本,把電子設備拿開,每天在同樣的地方學習,有規律地學習。”但是這并不是學習的唯一之路,而且我們的大腦總是會給出與之相左的建議。

Benedict Carey, who covers medicine and science for the The New York Times, is the author of How We Learn. He says that many of the old adages about studying and focus are outdated.Take the idea of studying in the same place every day. "You don't have to have the same chair, the same cubicle, the same room, to do your memorization," Carey says, "Changing context, changing environment aids retention."

為紐約時報藥物與科學采訪撰稿的本尼迪克特· 凱里是《如何學習》的作者。她說,很多關于學習和專注的理論都已經過時了。就拿每天要在同樣的地方學習這一條來說,“輔助記憶的話,沒必要非得坐同一張椅子,同一個隔間,同一個房間。”凱里這樣說,“換個環境反倒會有助于記憶。”

Interview Highlights

采訪要點

On discipline and learning

關于自律和學習

A lot of people think learning is all discipline. And it turns out scientists have discovered, that it doesn't work that way. The brain is a foraging instrument. And once you appreciate that, you're able to take some pressure off yourself to not worry that you're doing things right all the time and to have a tactical plan when you study for something。

很多人認為學習需要自律。但是科學家發現事實并非如此。大腦是一個采集工具。如果你意識到這點,就能放松許多而不是總去擔心是否做對了某件事,或者是否采取了正確的學習策略。

On how we typically study vs. how we learn life skills

關于我們如何學習以及如何習得生活技能

We know that quiet study, ritual, all those things we assume to be true, assume to be self-evident, those are only one way to study. A lot of things we've learned, whether it's to cook or ride a bicycle or socialize, we've done those piecemeal. The brain is very good at learning on the fly during daily life。

我們習慣于安靜地學習,我們假設這種方法是正確的,是不言而明的,但它們只是學習的方法之一。在我們學習烹飪、騎自行車或者社交時,都是一點一點學會的。大腦非常擅長在日常生活中學到新東西。

On the value of distractions — including digital ones

關于分散注意力的價值——包括電子設備

Distraction is one of those things everybody is worried about — certainly every parent, with the iPhones and people jumping on Facebook and so on. And of course if you're spending your entire time tooling around on Facebook, you're not studying, so that's a problem。

大家都在擔心自己會注意力不集中,尤其是家長[微博]們,或者拿著Iphone總是刷Facebook的人們。而且如果你總是刷Facebook的話,你也不會是在學習了,這的確是個問題。

However, there's a whole bunch of science looking at problem-solving. In problem-solving, when you get stuck, you've run out of ideas, distraction is really your best friend. You need to stand up, let it go — walk around the block, go to the cafe, drink a beer, whatever it is — and that is really your best shot at loosening the gears a little bit and allowing yourself to take a different and more creative approach to the problem。

然而,有很多解決這個問題的辦法。在學習中,如果你遇到了瓶頸而無計可施時,適當地分心無疑是很好的選擇。站起來先不去想它,走一走,喝杯咖啡,來瓶啤酒都可以。這會讓你適當放松并且能對遇到的問題有不同的、更有創意的想法。

On testing as a study tool, not just an evaluation

關于將考試作為學習方法,而不是考核標準

There's a lot of interesting research now looking at using testing as a study tool ... self-examination, or even doing tests before a course starts, are both very intriguing, interesting and possibly sort of revolutionary approaches to learning。

現在很多有意思的調查都將考試視作一種學習方法。自我檢測,或者在課程開始之前就考一次試,這些都是很有趣的,并且可能成為某種改革學習的方式。

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